Computers have always been using silicone to make semiconductors and thus transistors that based on their state are signaling 1 or 0. It is a binary code and this along with some other technologies can make up a modern computer.
Since the creation of the first computers, everything has changed. Computers now are very complex with tons of features that increase performance and decrease power consumption and size. At this point we are making 7nm CPUs. A human cell is huge compared to that. And it’s not only that we are adding more transistors and material for memory and communication in today’s processors. There are tons of features that control which transistors work when and allow processors to calculate things in milliseconds. But our requirements increase every day. For personal computers, datacenters, scientific analysis or simulations we need more and more power.
For this there quantum computers. Not really “are”, more like will be. Because while they exist, only a few companies own one or two and use them for very specific research. IBM and D-Wave have their versions of quantum computers. Each works a bit differently but the logic in the processing remains the same. Instead of transistors being in a position (1 or 0) quantum computers use quantum bits that can be in infinite states (0-1). How you make calculations like that it is incredibly hard to explain but it gets simpler. Companies try to develop software that make programming on such a processor much easier.
A quantum computer would be able to solve certain problems very quickly that today’s computers would take decades. They are not perfect for everything, they probably won’t be in your macbook for the next 20 years at least but scientists do have uses for them. The processing methodology uses particles in a way that outcomes have to be represented through an equation to be understood.
A new study shows an electron pump used in a quantum computer that can perform at over 1 GHz and maintain accuracy. This pump can essentially send to the rest of the system one billion electrons per second to be manipulated and used for calculations. There are still many parts of the quantum computer that require improvements like the cooling and electromagnetic interference but such systems will help us improve the performance of those quantum systems.
I have linked below a couple of articles that may help you further understand the topic if you are interested. If you like technologies like this and want an overview of quantum computers let me know in the comments. And for more science and tech news follow Qul Mind.